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Phonenumber 839-9931 and email adr. sey@logreglan.is

Questions and answers regarding disasters in Seyðisfjörður

    Response from the Icelandic Natural Catastrophe Insurance

    • Should residents who have lost their homes expect to be charged for mortgages they have taken on their property? Will the government be issuing a guarantee that the Icelandic Natural Catastrophe Insurance will be assuming payment obligations?

      All the banks have been contacted and they have expressed a willingness to defer loan payments on homes that have suffered a total loss until a settlement has been finalized. If a person is not able to stay in their home and has to pay rent elsewhere, it will be possible to review each case in light of that individual’s credit history. The owner is responsible for submitting a request for such a review.

    • Do those who repay their loans be required to prepay their loans?

      The Housing Financing Fund has decided to waive the prepayment fee on loans, as the conclusion was that people would not be prepaying loans voluntarily but under extenuating circumstances.

    • Which arrangements were made in Súðavík in the aftermath of the avalanches there? Did the Flood Fund purchase assets there?

      Yes, the Flood Fund was involved in the purchase of properties within the hazard zone in Súðavík.

    Response from the Icelandic Meteorological Office

    • * Why is the evacuation map being used defined as a temporary evacuation map?

      The map had to be developed quickly following the mudflows in December. The map may change in the coming months, as our knowledge of strata stability after the first real rains and snowmelt this spring.

    • * When will the risk assessment for mudflows in Seyðisfjörður, which the Icelandic Meteorological Office is developing, be complete?

      The risk assessment is submitted in stages. The assessment was revised for the area from Múli and beyond Stöðvarlækur, where the mudflows created changes to conditions. Next, the assessment will be reviewed for the areas beyond that (the area somewhat outside Stöðvarlækur) and within that point (Múli). Finally, the assessment will be reviewed for the main inhabited part of the southern settlement. We should emphasize that the critical points of the current risk assessment are still valid. The risk assessment includes extensive hazard zones and is based on evidence of large mudflows that have been found in the strata below the inhabited area. We do not expect to see any significant changes to this assessment. Research into the strata and hydrological data is forthcoming and will involve a preliminary study of defensive options for the southern settlement this spring and summer. The results of those studies will shape the review of the mudflow risk assessment, as applicable.

    • * Do evacuation stages I II and III correspond to zones A, B, and C so that evacuation stage I corresponds to zone C in the risk assessment?

      While there is a degree of correlation, the evacuation map does not follow the risk assessment lines entirely due to various practical reasons that do not need to be reflected in the risk assessment.

    • From the large landslide, you can see large cracks have formed in at least two terraces, what is the situation in this zone?

      We believe there is a greater risk than before underneath these large rafts that sank during the mudflow but did not slide forward. The risk assessment needs to be reviewed with this in mind. Buildings in this zone are in Zones B and C according to the current risk assessment and the same applies to buildings next to Stöðvarlækur. It can be assumed that all Zone C buildings in this area will be subject to a revised risk assessment. The movement of the plates is monitored with a surveying device (a total station).

    • What is the situation in the zone from Nautaklauf to Búðará?

      In this area, several buildings have been designated as Zone C, many buildings as Zone B, and the entire inhabited area is considered to lie above the A-line according to the current risk assessment — i.e. the entire inhabited area lies within a hazard zone. The revision of the risk assessment will not affect this designation, but the risk will likely be assessed somewhat higher, especially concerning the uppermost buildings. It is necessary to monitor the movement of strata in this zone due to this situation and equipment has been installed there for that purpose. The installation of additional measuring equipment to collect those readings is being explored and prepared.

    • What is the situation in Botnar, especially in the innermost part?

      Several buildings in this zone have been designated as Zone C, many as Zone B, and the inhabited area extends below the A-line. The hazard zone is very large and covers approx. all of the top six rows of buildings and this will not change with the upcoming risk assessment review. The risk assessment for the top rows of buildings needs to be reviewed. It is necessary to monitor the movement of strata in this zone due to this situation and equipment has been installed there for that purpose. The installation of additional measuring equipment to collect those readings is being explored and prepared.

    • Is it possible to see the pictures regarding the cracks that Harpa presented at the residents' meeting?

      The slides that Harpa and Tómas presented at the residents' meetings on December 21st and 30th are accessible on the municipality's website.

    • I have heard that there is one large crack that runs approximately from Fossgata and out along the fjord and that it is no longer a question of if, but when another large landslide will strike and sweep away more buildings. Is this true?

      We believe that the strata that came loose during the set of mudflows have largely settled back into their previous groove and that a new period of precipitation is needed to generate a significant risk of mudflow. This is defined as intense precipitation for one or more days over the reference point based on a set period or over the span of several years. The month of December saw unusually heavy precipitation. A long time will likely elapse between periods of such heavy precipitation. The Meteorological Office will soon install a precipitation gauge in Neðri-Botnar, which will improve the monitoring of extreme precipitation. However, there still exists a risk of landslides from the course left by the mudflow, but not to the extent that such mudflows or landslides will reach the inhabited areas outside where the large mudflow fell and the surrounding area. More measuring equipment has been installed to detect increased activity in the strata as soon as it begins. The plan is to install more recording instruments to more measuring instruments to reinforce monitoring. In addition to the precipitation gauge that will be installed in Neðri-Botnar, an automatic precipitation gauge is already operational in Seyðisfjörður and another just outside the populated area in Vestdalseyri. There can be a big difference in precipitation between locations within the fjord, so it is important to measure precipitation up on the ledge to get the most accurate picture of the situation at any given time.

    • How are the readings made step by step? Who is involved in gathering those readings and who does what? What are the mirrors? Who is offering their opinion and who is it that ultimately makes the decisions?

      Automatic measurements of strata activity, water pressure in boreholes, and meteorological measurements are used to assess any impending risk of landslides. Observers from the Meteorological Office also perform field readings to monitor for landslides. The Meteorological Office's Flood Watch issues recommendations for safety measures when these measurements and observations warrant it. The Chief of Police decides evacuation protocol in consultation with the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department and implements other measures based on the Meteorological Office's recommendations. There is always a level of uncertainty involved with monitoring and evacuation measures, although it can be greatly reduced by installing effective measuring equipment, some level of uncertainty will always remain. Evacuations will likely be become more frequent and extensive in the future, not least while experts are learning how to better interpret the data obtained with these monitoring instruments. A more detailed description of the measuring instruments that have been installed, or will be installed, for monitoring, can be found in the Meteorological Office's memorandum on the mudflow incident in Seyðisfjörður, which will be accessible on the municipality's website. Among other things, it discusses mirrors that are being used to monitor strata activity. Mirrors are installed in several sections of the zone that need to be monitored and their location is measured with a surveying device. Currently, readings are being made every 30 minutes in Seyðisfjörður. Repeated readings indicate the movement of the mirrors and thereby the strata on which they sit.

    • Is Botnahlíð safe?

      Below Botnabrún there are extensive hazard zones due to the risk of landslides as described in the risk assessment that was made in 2019 (see https://www.vedur.is/ofanflod/haettumat/seydisfjordur). This status calls for action. Several buildings in this zone have been designated as Zone C, many as Zone B, and the inhabited area extends below the A-line. The hazard zone is very large and covers approx. all of the top six rows of buildings and this will not change with the upcoming risk assessment review. The risk assessment for the top rows of buildings needs to be reviewed. It is necessary to monitor the movement of strata in this zone due to this situation and equipment has been installed there for that purpose. The installation of additional measuring equipment to collect those readings is being explored and prepared.

    • What can be done to protect the settlement in Seyðisfjörður from mudflows and landslides?

      Preliminary studies are being carried out on flood defenses for the southern part of Seyðisfjörður. Among other things, investigations are being carried out whether it is possible to drain water from strata where landslides may originate and build defenses below the slope. The results of the preliminary investigations will be available this spring or early summer. The results of preliminary investigations of defense options from 2016 can be accessed on the Meteorological Office's website (https://www.vedur.is/media/vedurstofan-utgafa-2016/VI_2016_006_rs.pdf).

    • What kind of lessons can be learned from the events?

      : In Seyðisfjörður, there are extensive hazard zones due to mudflows according to the risk assessment that was made in 2019. The mudflow incident in December 2020 is an example of the threat posed to the settlement of Seyðisfjörður by landslides and the risk assessment encompasses this. Extensive residential areas in Zones C and B lead to a high probability of landslides or mudflows falling somewhere in inhabited areas, even though the probabilities are generally not high in each spot. In several places south of Seyðisfjörður, there is a risk of landslides or mudflows bigger than the one on December 18th, 2020 striking inhabited areas. The main lesson that can be learned from these mudflows is that it is necessary to respond to the risk of flooding in Iceland through effective measures, particularly in inhabited areas that are classified as Hazard Zones C and B. Monitoring, preparedness planning and risk assessment criteria will be reviewed based on experience gained in December 2020 in cooperation with the police, the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department, the local population and others involved in preparedness planning to improve procedures and contingency plans. The mudflows in Seyðisfjörður in December have highlighted weaknesses in the dissemination of information to residents concerning risk assessment and hazard zones. Greater attention must be paid to the kind of activities that take place in flood risk areas and which objects and valuables are located there.

    • The current risk assessment is just over a year old, will we see a new one and how fast can a new risk assessment be produced?

      The criteria for the risk assessment will be reviewed this winter and a revised risk assessment will be issued as a result. A memorandum is being prepared to describe the risk assessment to the south of the town and which changes we are likely to see. As the hazard zones are already extensive and cover large areas, it is unlikely that major changes will be made. Over the coming months, various studies will be carried out on the strata in the slope above the southern part of Seyðisfjörður, and the risk assessment will be reviewed as necessary.

    • How do scientists determine whether the mountain is safe or not? Which readings are made and what is the margin of error? Could you please explain the process?

      A risk assessment is being carried out where the probability of injuries to people is assessed, but this does not take into account property damage. The risk assessment provides a picture of the long-term risk and is intended, among other things, to manage the zoning of inhabited areas so that over time the risk due to floods is decreased. Daily monitoring is also employed and it aims to trigger a response when an emergency is thought to be developing. Some uncertainties are inevitable when performing risk assessments and monitoring and that must be taken into account. The Flood Protection Act 505/2000 provides for the improvement in security in Zone C settlements either through the purchase of houses or defense options so that there will be no urbanization in such areas. Automatic measurements of strata activity, water pressure in boreholes, and meteorological measurements are used to assess any impending risk of landslides. Observers from the Meteorological Office also perform field readings to monitor for landslides.

    • Do residents need to take any precautions before spring in connection with thawing and possible mudflow from the mountains?

      We do not expect individual residents to take personal risk mitigation measures but an evacuation of individual homes may be required if there is a risk of landslides has been concluded. Residents can cover up windows and doors facing the hillside to reduce property damage. It is also worth paying attention to drainage from houses in some cases.

    • Can a situation arise where it will not be permitted to inhabit certain areas in town that were badly affected by a landslide, for example in Múli and the surrounding area or Garður, Botnahlíð and that area?

      It is possible, both in the affected zone as well as the area near to it where the strata moved but did not fall as a landslide. The town council has already decided that it will not be issuing permits to rebuild houses on the same plots in the zone where the landslide struck unless defensive barriers have been erected and the risk of flooding has been reassessed.

    • What readings and measures have been made to obtain information on possible hazards and evacuations when it begins to rain next?

      Work is underway to set up measuring instruments to monitor the risk of mudflow and landslides in Seyðisfjörður. Strata activity readings have been improved by introducing new surveying equipment and the installation of other new measuring instruments is planned. A description of the measuring instruments that have been installed, or will be installed, for monitoring, can be found in the Meteorological Office's memorandum on the mudflow incident in Seyðisfjörður, which will be accessible on the municipality's website.

    • For example, could defenses similar to those that have been employed in the Alps stop such a landslide or reduce its scope?

      It is not believed that defensive barriers would have halted the mudflow or prevented damage, especially the peripheries of the mudflow which moved at the highest speeds. Defensive barriers can also not be considered as a sustainable solution for the zone to the degree that the risk level in inhabited areas becomes acceptable. However, it is believed that the defensive measures that had been taken in the Búðará riverbed had a major impact on preventing the inner portion of the landslide from striking several houses in the so-called Múli which escaped damage in the landslide. A cistern that was excavated there and the obstructions below it had the effect of directing the mudflow away from buildings. This part of the mudflow ran at a slower speed and in those scenarios, the landscape has a greater effect on the distribution. The results of a preliminary investigation of defense options for the southern part of Seyðisfjörður from 2016 can be accessed on the Meteorological Office's website (https://www.vedur.is/media/vedurstofan-utgafa-2016/VI_2016_006_rs.pdf).

    • To what degree will global warming affect the risk of landslides?

      The warming that has taken place in this country is believed to have increased the risk of landslides on glaciers, as slopes have lost lateral support as the surface of the glacier drops, aside from the risk of landslides where slopes are experiencing thawing permafrost. There are several examples of landslides of this kind in Iceland in recent years and during the decades after the climate began to warm rapidly in Iceland after 1995. There is more doubt as to whether the frequency of landslides of other types, comparable to those that fell in Seyðisfjörður in December, has also increased, but as the century progresses, precipitation is expected to increase somewhat in Iceland and thereby increase the frequency of different types of landslides. In this regard, it should be noted that four large prehistoric landslides, for which we have traces of in the strata under the settlement south of Seyðisfjörður, fell several thousand years ago when temperatures in this country are not considered to have been warmer than they are now.

    • To what extent will global warming affect precipitation taking the form of rain rather than snow?

      A warming climate causes precipitation to take the form of rain rather than snow. It increases the risk of landslides during the winter months but can reduce the risk of landslides in spring when snowmelt is a factor in the build-up to landslides. In the 1940s, temperatures in Iceland were similar to what they are now and during recent years, and therefore we have no reason to believe that this effect is greater now than it was then.

    • To what extent does global warming affect the movement of vegetation uphill?

      Warmer weather causes vegetation to move higher up the slopes. The impact of this on landslides may be of significance but they are unlikely to have a major effect except in exceptional circumstances. 

    • Has the shift in sediment in the course carved out by the mudflow been assessed as leading to an increased risk of avalanches?

      The Icelandic Meteorological Office does not believe that the change to the landscape in Botnahlíð due to the large mudflow on December 18th has lead to a significant increase in the risk of avalanches in this area. The Meteorological Office's 2019 risk assessment assessed the avalanche risk in this area. The conclusion was that avalanches could start from that part of the slope where the mudslide originated. However, it is not considered likely. There are no known examples of avalanches at that location, as the slope was convex and not much snow accumulates there.

      The change in the landscape means that there is now a deep bowl on the slope at this location, with steep walls above and to the sides and a relatively flat bottom part with an incline of approx. 15°. This involves a greater risk of snow accumulation than before. However, the bowl sides are very steep and therefore unlikely to become a significant source of avalanches. The bottom of the bowl is too flat for enough snow to accumulate for it to generate avalanches. By our estimate, the risk of avalanches at this location is far lower than the risk posed by mudflows from the edge of the mudflow course, which will persist for the coming years.

      The Meteorological Office has released a risk assessment for the area below the area where the mudflow originated. The conclusion was that the risk is over the limits that designate it as a C Area. Therefore, in this area, it will not be permitted to rebuild existing structures nor construct new ones, and the local authorities have announced their decision in this matter.

    Response from the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department

    • Is there a contingency plan / evacuation plan in place for mudflows in Seyðisfjörður? If one exists, where can the public access it?

      Field-based evacuation plans have only been made concerning regard to avalanche evacuations. A special evacuation plan for mudflows in Seyðisfjörður based on the risk assessment that was presented in 2019 has not been prepared but it is being processed. However, the evacuation response can be prepared based on the current risk assessment for those zones that have been designated into categories A, B, and C based on the degree of risk. However, there exists an evacuation plan for avalanches and that can be found at https://www.vedur.is/ofanflod/vidbunadur/seydisfjordur/.

      The nature of evacuation and contingency plans is not the same. Evacuation plans are preventive in nature and are frequently used to prevent people from being placed in imminent danger. Evacuation plans state which areas residents should evacuate at any given time. Contingency plans are part of the operational procedures for emergency response teams and they come into effect when an event occurs that calls for an immediate response. There is no special contingency plan for landslides for Seyðisfjörður, but a specific procedure is followed for most events where the role of the response team is clearly defined.

    • Once a contingency plan / evacuation plan is published, in which languages will it be made available and how accessible will it be to residents, tourists, employees who work for a short period of time in the town, etc.? Who is responsible for informing re

      Flood risk evacuation plans are disseminated in Icelandic and have not been translated into other languages to date. When the community is largely composed of people speaking another dominant language, then we determine the need to disseminate the material in other languages. This will also need to be re-examined at regular intervals as the composition of our communities can evolve. When the evacuation plan is presented for the first time, it will be presented jointly by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and public authorities (municipalities and police). Evacuation plans must be prepared in cooperation with residents and others involved in the evacuation procedure.

      The Act on the Prevention of Avalanches and Landslides states that the municipal civil defense committees shall be responsible for the preparation of contingency plans, but this work has generally been led by the National Commissioner of Police's civil protection department in consultation with the relevant police department. Additionally, the municipal civil protection committee takes the initiative in providing guidance and public education on the danger of landslides and avalanches in cooperation with the National Commissioner of Police and the Icelandic Meteorological Office. 

    • Communication about evacuations was only delivered in Icelandic. Is it not mandatory to deliver the message in more languages?

      It is not clearly defined in which languages it is obligatory to communicate such messages. However, every effort is being made to adapt those notifications to the needs of the communities in question. Due to the composition of the Seyðisfjörður community, we emphasized communication in Icelandic, English, and Polish. For the initial announcements, text messages were only disseminated in Icelandic, but as the event progressed, more languages were added. Most press releases were delivered in Icelandic, English, and Polish

    • Is the formation of an evacuation/contingency plan mandatory once the risk assessment has been carried out? Who is responsible for formulating such a plan and how long will it take once the risk assessment has been released?

      The local authorities must draw up a plan of measures to ensure the safety of people in buildings in the hazard zone and this plan must be made available within six months of the risk assessment being finalized. Should the risk assessment conclude that the risk level is unacceptable, then an evacuation plan due to avalanches will be formulated. Evacuation plans are designed to reduce the risk of loss of life and injuries and ensure an orderly response in the event of an evacuation, and the Icelandic Meteorological Office oversees the composition of those plans. The Meteorological Office has also supervised the preparation of evacuation plans for landslides, but such plans are different from evacuation plans for avalanches and are usually not presented with pre-determined evacuation sites. The deadline for the finalization of evacuation plans is not specified by law.

      Contingency plans that come into effect in the event of a landslide or mudflow, and require an immediate response, are different from evacuation plans. Laws dictate that it is the duty of the municipal civil defense committees to compose those plans in conjunction with the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department (“almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra” - AVD). In recent years, however, a procedure has emerged that AVD has led efforts on the preparation of contingency plans in collaboration with the concerning chief of police and in consultation with civil defense committees. No deadline is specified for the preparation of contingency plans.

    • Is there a plan for how to ensure that residents in evacuation areas have received communication about evacuation protocol, and is it possible to pay special attention to which buildings house permanent residents at any given time?

      The Meteorological Office, the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department and the police follow special procedures that are effectively the same regarding avalanches and landslides in terms of their execution. The Meteorological Office monitors avalanche and landslide zones in densely inhabited areas. If the Meteorological Office considers that danger is imminent, the office issues a warning to the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of Police and the Commissioner of Police in the relevant district. The warning may be accompanied by a recommendation for evacuation or that special caution be observe in certain zones. The reserve teams of the civil defense department receive the message and ensure that this information is delivered to the police. The police then execute evacuation procedures and ensure that everyone within the proposed evacuation zone has received the message. The evacuation protocol does not take into effect whether the building serves as a permanent residence, a leisure facility, or a workplace. They will always ensure that everyone in the zone has been evacuated.

    • How are individuals in an evacuation zone informed, at any given time, about evacuation procedures, for example, if they are working in the area but do not live there?

      : Evacuation information can be provided to people in several ways. By text messages to the phones of people within a specific zone, by calling people up directly, or by going door-to-door. Police search the area and ensure that all the buildings and areas that have been designated for evacuation have demonstrably been evacuated. If there is any uncertainty about where people are located, the police can begin an inquiry

    • How should residents react when a mudflow strikes a residential area? Where should one go if one is outside a building and a landslide hits the building?

      Research has shown that it is probably safer to be on the upper floors of buildings. It is important to avoid standing by windows or doors that are facing a slope.

      If mudflows have already struck inhabited areas, the correct emergency response is vital and will be directed by the police. It is best to follow the recommendations of the police if this situation arises, but there may still be a situation where people have to take independent action. In the build-up to landslides, the Meteorological Office issues recommendations on safety measures and the police conclude the best course of action with regard to safety measures and the evacuation of housing.

      If a landslide strikes a building but does not cause damage that threatens the load-bearing capacity of the house, the landslide should be reported to 112 and seek further information regarding subsequent actions if no notifications have been received. If the landslide damages the structure and the house becomes uninhabitable, residents should get to a safe place and report the situation to 112. In most cases where landslides occur in inhabited areas and evacuations are carried out or houses are abandoned, first aid stations are set up and notifications regarding their location are distributed to residents.

    • Regarding evacuations due to mudflows in Seyðisfjörður have, to date, been made available in Icelandic, English, and Polish. However, the National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department has stated that there is no formal clause stipulating

      Amendments to the Civil Defense Act concerning the publication of material in languages other than Icelandic are worth considering. Our working methods are best supported by formally introducing such amendments into laws and regulations. In this light, we should clarify that our current response system includes protocols that involve, among other things, analyzing the composition of a population in an exposed area. Based on that analysis, we then determine which languages to translate into when disseminating information and material. However, we always translate the material into English, and, in this case, we also provided it in Polish.

    • Contingency plans and other material have so far been primarily published in Icelandic. The National Commissioner of Police's Civil Protection Department has stated that there is no specific rule regarding which languages it necessary to include when is

      Amendments to the Civil Defense Act concerning the publication of material in languages other than Icelandic are worth considering, and our working methods are best supported by formally introducing such amendments into laws and regulations. In this light, we should also clarify that our current response system includes protocols that involve, among other things, analyzing the composition of a population in an exposed area. Based on that analysis, we will determine which languages to translate into when disseminating information, announcements, and other material.

    Remedies on Behalf of Múlaþing

    • What will be done to support the development of industry in evacuation zones / zones that suffered damage, where insurance providers will not be issuing compensation?

      Information will be gathered on possible losses that can be traced to the disruption this has caused to economic activity in the area and a request will be made to the government to compensate for incurred damages via financial contributions.

    Response from the Health Directorate of East Iceland

    • A relief package of 17 million ISK to fund psychological support services has been announced. How will that support be offered? When can that support start? Would it be possible to arrange things so that those inhabitants who require the services can bo

      The additional funding for psychological services will enable HSA to hire one extra psychologist to work within the institution. It may take some time to find the additional staff, but we have already confirmed that two healthcare workers (including one psychologist) will be visiting Seyðisfjörður once a week.

      Those who require psychological treatment due to the mudflows will have access to the help they need. Interviews can be conducted in Seyðisfjörður, or via phone or video.

      Interviews can be requested through doctors at HSA, Social Services' staff, priests, and Red Cross employees in Herðubreið. Crisis counseling phone and/or video interviews can be booked by calling 470-3000. If people prefer video interviews but do not have access to a computer, the computer at the HSA Health Center facility in Seyðisfjörður is available for use.

    Respones from Efla

    • Directly above the innermost houses in Botnahlíð (5, 7 and 9) is a hill which residents worry about exploding forth. What will be done to protect residents in this area? How will the levee out in Nautaklauf protect residents in this area if the hill e

      Emergency protection is currently being constructed up along Nautaklauf and inward along Botnahlíð. These levees are first and foremost within the areas that were disrupted after the series of slides or where there have been paths, ditches or other interventions in the landscape that are convenient to use.

      There is a line of cliffs in the area above the innermost houses in Botnahlíð, i.e. 5, 7 and 9 and the space between the cliffs and the houses is very limited, thus it was not considered realistic to go in there at a fast pace as the land there is undisturbed, so to say and as the resources that are needed there need more time and effort, consultation process and possibly structural decisions. The hill can in fact break, both towards Nautaklauf and towards Botnahlíð. The levees by Nautaklauf will hold back slides that fall to the north from the hill.

      Botnahlíð in its entirety will be discussed in a report about possible slides in the area as a whole. This report will be published in the spring and the local government must subsequently make a decision about which way they want to go and after that, the official process will commence, i.e. assessment of environmental effects, design and tender.

      The area is now being rigidly monitored with geodetic survey equipment. There is a borehole in the aforementioned hill which will soon have a recording water level gauge and it will then at least be possible to easily monitor it. We saw how high the water rose in that hole now in December without the hill itself running forth so there is reasonably good data to rely on, at least with regards to big slides.

      (Jón Haukur Steingrímsson, Geologival Engineer at Efla)

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